Over the past two decades, psychological research on optimal human functioning has been burgeoning. Scholars have shown a new (or renewed) interest in topics such as morality, cooperation, altruism, wisdom, meaning, purpose, resilience, hope, flow, human growth, courage, empathy, spirituality, health, public service, self-control, emotional intelligence, and character strengths. The past decade especially has witnessed a surge in research on two types of exceptional individuals who best exemplify these positive qualities: heroes and heroic leaders. The Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership represents the first effort to gather scholarship on heroism into one definitive reference volume.
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Below is a reference list of scholarly and online articles, and books on heroism, the hero’s journey, myth and narrative, as well as related research on optimal human functioning and well-being. This list is by no means exhaustive and is only indicative of the breadth of literature in the emerging field of heroism science. It may be used as a starting point for interested researchers, students and anyone wishing to broaden their knowledge in the study of heroism.
If you are an author or researcher on heroism and would like your work to be featured on this page, please email firstname.lastname@example.org with a full citation and link to your article, book or blog.
The hero’s journey, heroism and myth
Campbell, Joseph. (1949). The Hero With a Thousand Faces. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.
Campbell, Joseph. (1972). Myths to Live By. New York: Bantam.
Campbell, Joseph, and Bill Moyers. (1988). Joseph Campbell and The Power Of Myth (with Bill Moyers).
Isen, J. (2010). The Heroes of Myth and Folklore: Part One – Defining a Hero. In Once Upon a Time… WordPress.com. Available from https://onceuponatimeinthedarkness.wordpress.com/2010/07/19/the-heroes-of-myth-and-folklore-part-one-defining-a-hero/
Rank, O., Segal, R. A., Raglan, L., & Dundes, A. (1990). In quest of the hero. Princeton University Press.
Contemporary psychology and heroism – emerging concepts, definitions and taxonomies
Allison, Scott T, and George R Goethals. (2011). Heroes: What They Do and Why We Need Them. New York: Oxford University Press.
Allison, Scott T, and George R Goethals. (2013). True Heroes: An Influence Taxonomy of 100 Exceptional Individuals. New York: Routledge.
Allison, S. T., & Goethals, G. R. (2014). “Now He Belongs to the Ages”: The Heroic Leadership Dynamic and Deep Narratives of Greatness. Conceptions of Leadership: Enduring Ideas and Emerging Insights, 167.
Allison, S. T., & Goethals, G. R. (2014). Constructing Heroic Associations: Making a Good Line Better. Heroes.
Allison, S. T., & Cecilione, J. L. (2015). Paradoxical truths in heroic leadership: Implications for leadership development and effectiveness.
Anderson, Jeffrey W. (1986). “Military Heroism: An Occupational Definition.” Armed Forces & Society no. 12 (4):591-606.
Blau, Kathryn. (2013). Correlates of Heroic Behavior. PhD, Palo Alto University.
Blau, K., Franco, Z., & Zimbardo, P. (2012). Fostering the heroic imagination: An ancient ideal and a modern vision. Psi Chi Journal.
DeAngelis, Catherine D. (2002). “Heroism.” JAMA no. 288 (10):1280-1280.
Franco, Zeno E, Kathy Blau, and Philip G Zimbardo. (2011). “Heroism: A Conceptual Analysis and Differentiation Between Heroic Action and Altruism.” Review of General Psychology no. 15 (2):99-113.
Franco, Zeno, and Philip Zimbardo. 2006. “The Banality of Heroism.” Greater Good no. 3 (2):30-35.
Goethals, George R, and Scott T Allison. 2012. “Making Heroes: The Construction of Courage, Competence, and Virtue.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, edited by Mark P. Zanna and James M. Olson, 183-238. USA: Academic Press.
Gray, K. (2010). Moral transformation good and evil turn the weak into the mighty. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(3), 253-258.
Hakanen, Ernest A. (1989). “Evolution of Heroes: An Expanded Typology of Heroes for the Electronic Age.” Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology no. 17 (2):153-158.
Hudson, Sheena, and Kerr Inkson. (2006). “Volunteer Overseas Development Workers: The Hero’s Adventure and Personal Transformation.” Career Development International no. 11 (4):304-320.
Igou, E., T. Ritchie, and E. Kinsella. (2012). Ul Research Highlights the Importance of Heroism in Everyday Life. Univesity of Limerick. Available from http://www.ul.ie/news-centre/news/ul-research-highlights-the-importance-of-heroism-in-everyday-life.
Jayawickreme, Eranda, and Paul Di Stefano. (2012). “How can we Study Heroism? Integrating Persons, Situations and Communities.” Political Psychology no. 33 (1):165-178.
Keczer Z, File B, Orosz G, Zimbardo PG. (2016). Social Representations of Hero and Everyday
Hero: A Network Study from Representative Samples. PLoS ONE 11(8): e0159354. doi:10.1371/
Kinsella, Elaine Louise. (2013). A Psychological Perspective on the Features and Functions of Heroes. Ph.D., University of Limerick, Ann Arbor.
Kinsella, E. L., Ritchie, T. D., & Igou, E. R. (2015). Zeroing in on heroes: A prototype analysis of hero features. Journal of personality and social psychology, 108(1), 114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038463
Kinsella, E. L., Ritchie, T. D., and Igou, E. R. (2015). Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 130. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00130
Kramer, R. M. (in preparation). Existential courage among emerging adults (working title only). To appear in S. T. Allison, G. R. Goethals, and R. M. Kramer (Eds.). Handbook of heroism and heroic leadership, forthcoming from Psychology Press (Taylor and Francis).
Langdon, Matt, and Matthew Osmon. (2014). The Hero Field Guide (Volume 1). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Lowney, C. (2010). Heroic leadership: Best practices from a 450-year-old company that changed the world. Loyola Press.
Martens, Jeffrey W. (2005). “Definitions and Omissions of Heroism.” The American Psychologist no. 60 (4):342-343.
Rode, Francis W., III. (2012). The Heroic Journey of a Common Man: Benefiting Society One Journey at a Time. D.Litt., Drew University.
Schlenker, B. R., Weigold, M. F., & Schlenker, K. A. (2008). What makes a hero? The impact of integrity on admiration and interpersonal judgment. Journal of Personality, 76(2), 323-355.
Sinclair, A., & Lips-Wiersma, M. (2008). Leadership for the disillusioned: Moving beyond myths and heroes to leading that liberates, Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 5(2), 211-215.
Staats, Sara, Julie M Hupp, and Anna M Hagley. (2008). “Honesty and Heroes: A Positive Psychology View of Heroism and Academic Honesty.” The Journal of Psychology no. 142 (4):357-372.
Stenstrom, Douglas M, and Mathew Curtis. (2012). “Heroism and Risk of Harm.” Psychology no. 3 (12A special issue (Dec 2012)):1085-1090.
Sullivan, Michael P, and Anre Venter. (2005). “The Hero Within: Inclusion of Heroes Into the Self.” Self and Identity no. 4 (2):101-111.
Tomazos, K., & Butler, R. (2010). The volunteer tourist as ‘hero’. Current Issues in Tourism, 13(4), 363-380.
Weinstein, Harrison. (2012). Beyond Courage: The Psychology of Heroism. Ph.D., Palo Alto University.
Gender and heroism
Becker, Selwyn W, and Alice H Eagly. (2004). “The Heroism of Women and Men.” American Psychologist no. 59 (3):163-178.
Dugaw, D. (1994). The Anatomy of Heroism: Gender Politics and Empire in Gay’s Polly. History, Gender and Eighteenth-Century Literature (Athens and London: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1994), 39-63.
Eagly, Alice H, and Selwyn W Becker. (2005). “Comparing the Heroism of Women and Men.” The American Psychologist no. 60 (4):343-344.
Lee, J. (2008, February). Sisterhood at the front: Friendship, comradeship, and the feminine appropriation of military heroism among World War I First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY). In Women’s Studies International Forum (Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 16-29). Pergamon.
McDermott, J. (1999). New Womanly Man: Feminized Heroism and the Politics of Compromise in The Warden. Victorians Institute Journal, 27, 71-90.
Rose, M. B. (2002). Gender and heroism in early modern English literature. University of Chicago Press.
Navarro, A. M. (2012). Heroism of Filipino Women in the Popular Movements (1896-1935). Review of Women’s Studies, 8(1).
Rankin, Lindsay E, and Alice H Eagly. (2008). “Is His Heroism Hailed and Hers Hidden? Women, Men, and the Social Construction of Heroism.” Psychology of Women Quarterly no. 32 (4):414-422.
Education, heroism and the hero’s journey
Brown, John L, and Cerylle A Moffett. (1999). The Hero’s Journey: How Educators can Transform Schools and Improve Learning. USA: ASCD.
Champagnat, Ronan, Guylain Delmas, and Michel Augeraud. (2010). “A Storytelling Model for Educational Games: Hero’s Interactive Journey.” International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning no. 2 (1):4-20.
Goldstein, Lisa S. (2005). “Becoming a Teacher as a Hero’s Journey: Using Metaphor in Preservice Teacher Education.” Teacher Education Quarterly no. 32 (1):7-24.
Holmes, Thomas. (2007). “The Hero’s Journey: An Inquiry-Research Model.” Teacher Librarian-Seattle no. 34 (5):19.
Popular culture, literature and the arts, heroism and the hero’s journey
Ardill, C. (2008). The hero’s journey: an exploration of musical leitmotif in Hollywood cinema. BA dissertation, University of Portsmouth.
Bonde, L. O. (2005). “Finding a New Place…” Metaphor and Narrative in One Cancer Survivor’s BMGIM Therapy. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 14(2), 137-154.
Buchanan‐Oliver, M., & Seo, Y. (2012). Play as co‐created narrative in computer game consumption: The hero’s journey in Warcraft III. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 11(6), 423-431.
Klisanin, D. (2015). Analyzing Anakin: A journey into integral psychology. In Langley, T. (Ed.) Star Wars Psychology. New York: Sterling.
Klisanin, D. (in-preparation) Collaborative Heroism: Exploring the future of heroism. In Allison, S. T., Goethals, G. R., & Kramer, R. M. (Eds.) (in preparation). Handbook of heroism and heroic leadership. New York: Routledge.
Klisanin, D. (in-preparation). Jon Snow: Hero. In Langley, T. (Ed.) Game of Thrones Psychology. New York: Sterling.
Klisanin, D. (in-preparation). Collaborative Heroism: Confronting Global Challenges Together. Manuscript originally presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, 2013.
Klisanin, D. (2012). Archetypes of Change in a Digital Age, Institute of Noetic Sciences.
Lipe, A. W. (2002). Beyond therapy: Music, spirituality, and health in human experience: A review of literature. Journal of Music Therapy, 39(3), 209-240.
McLoone, H. E. (2010, September). Product archetype of personal computers as an expression of the collective unconsciousness of people on their hero’s journey. In Proceedings of the human factors and ergonomics society annual meeting (Vol. 54, No. 20, pp. 1771-1775). SAGE Publications.
Randles, C. (2011). The” Hero’s Journey”: A Way of Viewing Music Teacher Socialization. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 1057083711403000.
Randles, C. A. (2010). Creative identity in music teaching and learning. Michigan State University.
Taha, Ibrahim. (2002). “Heroism in Literature.” The American Journal of Semiotics no. 18 (1/4):107-126.
Viega, M. (2012). The hero’s journey in hip-hop and its applications in music therapy. Therapeutic uses of rap and hip-hop, 57-78.
Wu, Janice Pei-Yen. (2000). Richard Strauss: Heroism, Auto-Heroism and the Musical Self. Ph.D. , University of Queensland.
Counselling, healthcare, well-being, heroism and the hero’s journey
Busick, Bonnie Sigren. (1989). “Grieving As A Hero’s Journey.” In Bereavement Care: A New Look at Hospice and Community Based Services, edited by Marcia E. Lattanzi-Licht, Jane Marie Kirschling and Stephen J. Fleming, 89-126. New York: Haworth Press, Inc.
Darbyshire, P. (2011). Nursing heroism in the 21st Century’. BMC nursing, 10(1), 4.
Halstead, Richard W. (2000). “From Tragedy to Triumph: Counselor as Companion on the Hero’s Journey.” Counseling and Values no. 44 (2):100-106.
Heinrich, Kathleen T. (1997). “Transforming Impostors into Heroes: Metaphors for Innovative Nursing Education.” Nurse Educator no. 22 (3):45-50.
Lanara, V. (1977). Heroism and Nursing. Athens, Greece.
Lanara, V. A. (1974). Heroism as a nursing value. Columbia University.
Lawson, Gerard. (2005). “The Hero’s Journey as a Developmental Metaphor in Counseling.” The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development no. 44 (2):134-144.
Mantle, M. (2008). Disability, heroism and Australian national identity. M/C Journal, 11(3).
Mark, M., & Pearson, C. S. (2001). The hero and the outlaw: Building extraordinary brands through the power of archetypes. McGraw Hill Professional.
Pearson, C. (1991). Awakening the heroes within: Twelve archetypes to help us find ourselves and transform our world. Harper San Francisco.
Robbins, Ruth Anne. (2005). “Harry Potter, Ruby Slippers and Merlin: Telling The Client’s Story Using the Characters and Paradigm of the Archetypal Hero’s Journey.” Seattle University Law Review no. 29 (4):767.
Smith, Marlaine C. (2002). “Health, Healing, and the Myth of the Hero Journey.” Advances in Nursing Science no. 24 (4):1-13.
Indigenous perspectives on heroism and heroic leadership
Barlow, A. & Hill, M. (2003). Indigenous Heroes and Leaders. Pearson Education Australia.
Miller, J. (1985). Koori, a will to win: the heroic resistance, survival & triumph of black Australia. Angus & Robertson Publishers.
Newbury, P. W. (1999). Aboriginal heroes of the resistance: from Pemulwuy to Mabo. Action for World Development.
Newbury, P. W. (2011). Forgotten Aboriginal war heroes. Retrieved from http://www.eurekastreet.com.au/article.aspx?aeid=25647#.VZY7otiQ-01
Philosophy, history and heroism
Beach, D. N. (1988). From heroism to history: Mapondera and the northern Zimbabwean plateau, 1840-1904. History in Africa, 15, 85-161.
Bentley, E. (1947). The Cult of the Superman: A Study of the Idea of Heroism in Carlyle and Nietzsche, with Notes on Other Hero-worshippers of Modern Times. R. Hale.
Berkowitz, B., & Berkowitz, W. (1990). Local heroes: The rebirth of heroism in America. Lexington Books.
Buchan, M. (2004). The Limits of Heroism: Homer and the Ethics of Reading.
Farnell, L. R. (1921). Greek hero cults and ideas of immortality.
Kerényi, K. (1959). The heroes of the Greeks. London: Thames and Hudson.
Kohen, A. (2013). Untangling Heroism: Classical Philosophy and the Concept of the Hero. Routledge.
Kohen, A. (2011). Plato’s Heroic Vision: The Difficult Choices of the Socratic Life. Polis: The Journal for Ancient Greek Political Thought, 28(1), 45-73.
Martin, P. (2004). Heroism and history: Childe Harold I & II and the tales. Cambridge University Press.
Nagy, G. (2013). The ancient Greek hero in 24 hours. Harvard University Press.
Price, J. (2014). Everyday Heroism: Victorian Constructions of the Heroic Civilian. A&C Black.
Seal, G. (2009). The Robin Hood principle: Folklore, history, and the social bandit. Journal of Folklore Research, 46(1), 67-89.
Smyth, B. (2010). Heroism and history in Merleau-Ponty’s existential phenomenology. Continental Philosophy Review, 43(2), 167-191. doi:10.1007/s11007-010-9138-5
Dunlop, W. L., Walker, L. J., & Matsuba, M. K. (2012). The distinctive moral personality of care exemplars. Journal of Positive Psychology, 7, 131-143. doi:10.1080/17439760.2012.662994
Dunlop, W. L., Walker, L. J., & Matsuba, M. K. (2013). The development of moral motivation across the adult lifespan. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10, 285-300. doi:10.1080/17405629.2012.746205
Dunlop, W. L., & Walker, L. J. (2013). The personality profile of brave exemplars: A person-centered analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 380-384. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2013.03.004
Dunlop, W. L., Walker, L. J., & Wiens, T. K. (2015). The redemptive story: A requisite for sustaining prosocial behavioral patterns following traumatic experiences. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 28, 228-242. doi:10.1080/10720537.2014.917444
Eveleth, Lois M. (2006). “Heroism as Moral Paradox.” Contemporary Philosophy no. XXVII (3, Fall 2006):1-18.
Frimer, J. A., Walker, L. J., Dunlop, W. L., Lee, B. H., & Riches, A. (2011). The integration of agency and communion in moral personality: Evidence of enlightened self-interest. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 149-163.doi:10.1037/a0023780
Frimer, J. A., Walker, L. J., Lee, B. H., Riches, A., & Dunlop, W. L. (2012). Hierarchical integration of agency and communion: A study of influential moral figures. Journal of Personality, 80, 1117-1145. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00764.x
Frimer, J. A., Biesanz, J. C., Walker, L. J., & MacKinlay, C. W. (2013). Liberals and conservatives rely on common moral foundations when making moral judgments about influential people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 1040-1059. doi:10.1037/a0032277
Kohen, A. (2010). A Case of Moral Heroism: Sympathy, Personal Identification, and Mortality in Rwanda. Human Rights Review, 11(1), 65-82.
Matsuba, M. K., & Walker, L. J. (2004). Extraordinary moral commitment: Young adults working for social organizations. Journal of Personality, 72, 413-436.doi:10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00267.x
Matsuba, M. K., & Walker, L. J. (2005). Young adult moral exemplars: The making of self through stories. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15, 275-297. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2005.00097.x
Walker, L. J., & Pitts, R. C. (1998). Naturalistic conceptions of moral maturity. Developmental Psychology, 34, 403-419.doi:10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1993
Walker, L. J. (1999). The perceived personality of moral exemplars. Journal of Moral Education, 28, 145-162.doi:10.1080/030572499103188
Walker, L. J. (2002). Moral exemplarity. In W. Damon (Ed.), Bringing in a new era in character education (pp. 65-83). Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Walker, L. J. (2003). Morality, religion, spirituality – The value of saintliness. Journal of Moral Education, 32, 373-384.doi:10.1080/0305724032000161277
Walker, L. J., & Hennig, K. H. (2004). Differing conceptions of moral exemplarity: Just, brave, and caring. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 629-647. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.529
Walker, L. J., & Frimer, J. A. (2007). Moral personality of brave and caring exemplars. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 845-860. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2065
Walker, L. J., & Frimer, J. A. (2008). Being good for goodness’ sake Transcendence in the lives of moral heroes. In F. Oser& W. Veugelers (Eds.), Getting involved: Global citizenship development and sources of moral values (pp. 309-326). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Walker, L. J., & Frimer, J. A. (2009). Moral personality exemplified. In D. Narvaez & D. K. Lapsley (Eds.), Personality, identity and character: Explorations in moral psychology (pp. 232-255). New York: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511627125.011
Walker, L. J., Frimer, J. A., & Dunlop, W. L. (2010). Varieties of moral personality: Beyond the banality of heroism. Journal of Personality, 78, 907-942. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00637.x
Walker, L. J., Frimer, J. A., & Dunlop, W. L. (2012). Paradigm assumptions about moral behavior: An empirical battle royal. In M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), The social psychology of morality: Exploring the causes of good and evil (pp. 275-292). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/13091-015
Walker, L. J. (2013). Moral motivation through the perspective of exemplarity. In K. Heinrichs, F. K. Oser, & T. Lovat (Eds.), Handbook of moral motivation: Theories, models, applications (pp. 197-214). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Walker, L. J. (2013). Exemplars’ moral behavior is self-regarding. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 142, 27-40. doi:10.1002/cad.20047
Walker, L. J. (2014). Moral personality, motivation, and identity. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (2nd ed., pp. 497-519). New York: Psychology Press.
Walker, L. J. (2014). Prosocial exemplarity in adolescence and adulthood. In L. Padilla-Walker & G. Carlo (Eds.), Prosocial development: A multidimensional approach (pp. 433-453). New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199964772.003.0021
Social sciences and heroism
Abbey, E., & Valsiner, J. (2005, January). Emergence of meanings through ambivalence. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research (Vol. 6, No. 1).
Akpagu, Z. I. (2006). Terrorism or heroism? The potrait of the rebel in French Caribbean novels. Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research, 2(1), 53-70.
Atran, S. (2006). The moral logic and growth of suicide terrorism. Washington Quarterly, 29(2), 127-147.
Blackwell, A. D. (2005, March). Terrorism, heroism, and altruism: Kin selection and socioreligious cost–benefit scaling in Palestinian suicide attack. In The 2005 Human Behavior and Evolution Society Meeting.
Brigham, R. K. (2000). Revolutionary Heroism and Politics in Postwar Vietnam. After Vietnam: Legacies of a Lost War, 85-104.
Chowdhury, I. (1998). The frail hero and virile history: Gender and the politics of culture in colonial Bengal. Delhi: oxford university Press.
Marinelli, M. (2005). Heroism/Terrorism: Empire Building in Contemporary Chinese Films. Asian Cinema, 16(2), 183-209.
Mullally, K. F. (1986). Combatting International Terrorism: Limiting the Political Exception Doctrine in Order to Prevent One Man’s Terrorism from Becoming Another Man’s Heroism. Vill. L. Rev., 31, 1495.
Nelson, P. (2000). Heroism and ambiguity: NGO advocacy in international policy. Development in Practice, 10(3-4), 478-490.
Watts, J. G. (1994). Heroism and the Black Intellectual: Ralph Ellison, Politics, and Afro-American Intellectual Life. Univ of North Carolina Press.
Zimbardo, P. G., Breckenridge, J. N., & Moghaddam, F. M. (2013). “Exclusive” and “Inclusive” Visions of Heroism and Democracy. Current Psychology, 32(3), 221-233.
Religion, consciousness, spirituality, heroism and the hero’s journey
Barge, L. I. D. (1988). God, the quest, the hero: thematic structures in Beckett’s fiction (No. 230). Univ of North Carolina Pr.
Feinstein, David. (1998). “At Play in The Fields of the Mind: Personal Myths as Fields of Information.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology no. 38 (3):71-109.
Porpora, D. V. (1996, June). “Personal heroes, religion, and transcendental metanarratives“. In Sociological Forum (Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 209-229). Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers.
Science, heroism, the hero’s journey and myth
Daily, Mail. (2009). “Motor Neurone ‘Hero’ Gene Offers New Hope to Sufferers of Devastating Disease”. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1180735/Motor-neurone-hero-gene-offers-new-hope-sufferers-devastating-disease.html.
Forrest, Adam. (2013). “Is there a Hero Gene?”. The Big Issue, http://www.thebagissue.com/features/1951/there-hero-gene.
Galloway, Paul. (1987). “The Garden Variety of Genetic Heroism: In a World of Tasteless Tomatoes, Seed Saviors are Standing Guard.” Chicago Tribune, 26 August: D1.
Kaufman, Carolyn. (2011). “Triggering the “Warrior Gene” in a Villain or Hero: Is coldblooded aggression due to nature, nurture, or both?”. Psychology Today, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/psychology-writers/201104/triggering-the-warrior-gene-in-villain-or-hero.
Korotayev, Andrey, and Daria Khaltourina. (2011). Myth and Genes: A Deep Historical Reconstruction.
Landau, Misia. (1984). “Human Evolution as Narrative: Have Hero Myths and Folktales Influenced our Interpretations of the Evolutionary Past?” American Scientist no. 72 (3):262-268.
McTighe, Carolyn. (2010). “The Hero Gene: How Adversity Can Bring Out the Best in All of Us”. Toronto Sun, http://www.torontosun.com/life/2010/01/20/12545021.html.
Monteiro, L. H. A., & Mustaro, P. N. (2012). Hero’s journey in bifurcation diagram. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 17(6), 2233-2236.
News, CBS. (2011). “Was Kate Winslet Born With a “Hero Gene”?”. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1778rpKkwiw
Rusch, Hannes, and Charlotte Störmer. (2015). “An evolutionary perspective on war heroism.” Militaire Spectator, http://www.militairespectator.nl/thema/ethiek/artikel/evolutionary-perspective-war-heroism
Rusch, H., Leunissen, J. M., & van Vugt, M. (2015). Historical and experimental evidence of sexual selection for war heroism, Evolution and Human Behavior, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.02.005
Smirnov, Oleg, Holly Arrow, Douglas Kennett, and John Orbell. (2007). “Ancestral War and the Evolutionary Origins of “Heroism”.” Journal of Politics no. 69 (4):927-940.
Svoboda, Elizabeth. (2013). What makes a hero?: The surprising science of selflessness. Penguin Publishing Group.
Narrative therapy, myth and well-being
Baerger, Dana Royce, and Dan P McAdams. (1999). “Life Story Coherence and its Relation to Psychological Well-Being.” Narrative Inquiry no. 9 (1):69-96.
Bauer, Jack J, Dan P McAdams, and Jennifer L Pals. (2008). “Narrative Identity and Eudaimonic Well-Being.” Journal of Happiness Studies no. 9 (1):81-104.
Carpenter, Janet S, Dorothy Y Brockopp, and Michael A Andrykowski. (1999). “Self‐Transformation as a Factor in the Self‐Esteem and Well‐Being of Breast Cancer Survivors.” Journal of Advanced Nursing no. 29 (6):1402-1411.
Feinstein, David. (1990). “Bringing a Mythological Perspective to Clinical Practice.” Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training no. 27 (3):388-396.
Folkman, Susan. 1997. “Introduction to the Special Section: Use of Bereavement Narratives to Predict Well-Being in Gay Men Whose Partner Died Of Aids—Four Theoretical Perspectives.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology no. 72 (4):851-854.
Fosha, Diana. (2002). “Trauma Reveals the Roots of Resilience.” Constructivism in the Human Sciences no. 6 (1/2):7-15.
Fredriksson, Lennart, and Katie Eriksson. (2001). “The Patient’s Narrative of Suffering: a Path to Health?” Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences no. 15 (1):3-11.
Greene, Mark. (2011). “Using Myths, Legends and Fairy Tales in Counselling: Archetypal Motifs Underlying the Mother Complex.” Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy no. 2 (1):41-50.
Krippner, Stanley, and David Feinstein. (2006). “Psychotherapy in a Mythic Key: The Legacy of Carl Gustav Jung.” Revision no. 28 (4):2-16.
Little, Robert Matthew, and Lynn Froggett. (2010). “Making Meaning in Muddy Waters: Representing Complexity Through Community Based Storytelling.” Community Development Journal no. 45 (4):458-473.
Maneates, Laura M. (2014). Re-Visioning Failure: A Vehicle for Psychological Development and Transformation. M.A., Pacifica Graduate Institute.
McLean, Kate C, and Andrea V Breen. (2009). “Processes and Content of Narrative Identity Development in Adolescence: Gender and Well-Being.” Developmental Psychology no. 45 (3):702-710.
Pals, Jennifer L, and Dan P McAdams. (2004). “The Transformed Self: A Narrative Understanding of Posttraumatic Growth.” Psychological Inquiry no. 15 (1):65-69.
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